Muhammad bin Qasim’s full name was Emad-ud-Din Muhammad bin, Qasim. He was the nephew of Hajjaj bin Yusuf, a famous Umayyad general. He was only 17 years old when he conquered India and introduced Islam in this part of the world. Due to this great victory, he has the honor of being a hero among the Muslims of India and Pakistan and that is why Sindh is called “Bab-ul-Islam” because the door of Islam opened on India from here.
Muhammad bin Qasim was born in 694 in Taif. Her father was considered a prominent member of the family. When Hajjaj bin Yusuf was appointed governor of Iraq, he appointed prominent members of the Saqafi family to various positions. Among them was Muhammad’s father who held the governorship of Basra. Thus Muhammad bin Qasim’s initial training took place in Basra. Her father died when he was about 5 years old.
From an early age, Muhammad-bin-Qasim was seen as an intelligent and capable man of the future. Due to poverty, he could not fulfill his desire to pursue higher education, so he joined the army after his primary education. He received his military training in Damascus, and at a very young age, due to his extraordinary ability, he attained a high position in the army and gained a distinguished status.
At the age of 15, in Iran, the Kurds were assigned duties of command to end the rebellion. At that time it was the time of Walid bin Abdul Malik, the ruler of the Umayyads, and Hajjaj bin Yusuf was the governor of Iraq. Muhammad bin Qasim succeeded in this expedition and made a modest cantonment of Shiraz.
This was a special city and appointed governor of that city where he ruled with all his virtues and made a fortune of his ability and intelligence. At the age of 17, he was sent on a mission to Sindh. Muhammad bin Qasim’s series of conquests began in 711 and continued until 713. He conquered important areas of Sindh and Multan. He brought the conquests of Sindh to an end, but circumstances did not allow the desire to move towards North India to be fulfilled.
Muhammad bin Qasim was very young, but even in this minor Sunni, he not only made a name for himself as a great conqueror but also proved to be a successful administrator. He spent about 4 years in Sindh but in this short period along with his conquests, he managed the empire and laid the foundation of a system of government in Sindh which fulfilled all the requirements of justice.
The deeds performed by Muhammad bin Qasim in India due to his abilities, courage, and good manners are remarkable. He adopted an excellent policy of tolerance for the people of Sindh. Muhammad bin Qasim’s conquest of Sindh had many political, social, religious, and practical implications.
Personality and character
Muhammad bin Qasim was a young man and performed as a commander in the Sindh campaign at such a young age fully reflect his character. He had great combat skills and managerial skills. The success of the Sindh campaign is enough to prove its capabilities. His morals and character can also be gauged from the fact that a non-nation had fallen in love with him. The people of Sindh began to express their extreme desire for it.
Ijaz-ul-Haq Qudusi, a writer on the history of Sindh, writes
“When Muhammad bin Qasim decided to leave Sindh his departure was greatly regretted all over Sindh. On his death, the Hindus and Buddhists of the city of Maraj expressed their devotion by erecting a statue of him in their city”
The same mention has been made by the author of Fatuh al-Baldan, Blazeri.
”Muhammad bin Qasim’s personality was very distinguished. His manners quickly made others fall in love. Her tongue was sweet and her face was smiling. He was a brave, kind, compassionate, and sociable man. He treated everyone with love and his subordinates respected him to the utmost. He shared people’s grief in ordinary life. He used his intellect to the fullest at every turn and his every step sought ways to success. His high ideals and strong intentions were proof of his success. “
After the conquest of Multan, Muhammad bin Qasim took a step towards the lush green region of northern India. He first invited the Raja of Qanooj to embrace Islam but he did not accept it. Therefore, Muhammad bin Qasim decided to attack Qanooj. Meanwhile, Hajjaj bin Yusuf died in 95 AH, and Muhammad bin Qasim returned to Qanooj aborted his attack.
Shortly after the death of Hajjaj bin Yusuf, Walid bin Abdul Malik issued orders to all the governors of the eastern countries to stop all conquests and advances. Circumstances did not allow Muhammad bin Qasim’s desire for conquests in northern India to be fulfilled and a few months later Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik also died in 96 AH.
With the death of the Umayyad Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik, the downfall of the conqueror of Sindh Muhammad bin Qasim began because Walid’s brother was succeeded by his brother Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik who was a fierce enemy of Hajjaj bin Yusuf. Although the pilgrims died before the beginning of his caliphate. He avenged this court on all the families of the pilgrims and disregarded all the services and deeds of Muhammad bin Qasim for the crime of being a member of the family of the pilgrims. Reprimanded
Sulayman killed Yazid bin Abi KabshaHe was sent as the governor of Sindh and ordered to arrest Muhammad bin Qasim. When Muhammad bin Qasim’s companions found out about this arrest, they said to Muhammad bin Qasim, “We know you as our emir and we swear allegiance to you for this. We will not allow the hand of the caliph to reach you.” Bin Qasim bowed to the caliph’s order.
This is the greatest proof of his greatness that if he had not done so, every particle of the desert of Sindh would have come forward to help him but he surrendered himself to Abi Kabsha. Muhammad bin Qasim was arrested and sent to Damascus. Solomon imprisoned him in Wasit prison.
After 7 months of imprisonment, he passed away. Thus the caliph of the Mohsin Empire did not appreciate and a great conqueror lost his life simply because of the personal enmity of the caliph. But he showed fighting ability, courage, and good judgment deeds done in India due to morality were written in golden letters in history. His death caused great damage to the Islamic world.
Sindh after Muhammad bin Qasim
Muhammad bin Qasim lived in Sindh for almost four years. After the conquest of Sindh, he ran the system of government here very successfully. The success of this system was, of course, due to its personality.
He was deposed from the governorship of Sindh and Yazid bin Abi Kabsha was appointed governor but died after few days. Until his death and the arrival of the new governor, the effects of Muhammad bin Qasim’s arrest began to be felt in the form of disorder in Sindh.
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